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28 Jan 2003 : Column 747Wcontinued
Mr. Wood: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what contingency plans her Department has made for humanitarian assistance to Iraq in the event of military action; and what funds the Government will make available for such measures. 
28 Jan 2003 : Column 748W
Clare Short: My Department is undertaking contingency planning for a range of eventualities in Iraq. The potential costs of additional humanitarian assistance under various scenarios, and how they would be financed, are under active review.
New rules require the right balance between standardisation and flexibility. For rules to be strong and binding, they need to have enough flexibility to meet the varying needs of the WTO membership and to recognise that WTO members are at different stages of development.
Without flexibility, new WTO agreements will be stuck at the lowest common denominator. This will lead to richer members making agreements amongst themselves outside the WTO and without consideration for the impacts on developing countries.
The term special and differential treatment is used to describe special provisions for developing countries in existing WTO agreements 1 . Many developing countries complain that in the Uruguay Round the application of special and differential treatment and the treatment of different country circumstances were haphazard and that longer implementation deadlines for developing countries were decided arbitrarily.
There needs to be a better application of flexibility in designing future WTO rules. Appropriate flexibility should be integrated systematically into WTO agreements, rather than added on as an afterthought.
Special and differential treatment reforms will eventually link into the poverty reduction strategies. Thus the integration of trade policy reform is essential if poor people are to benefit from trade liberalisation. In addition to special and differential treatment, the UK has been supporting the Integrated Framework. The Integrated Framework has two aims: to identify trade capacity building and technical assistance needs in least developed countries to which the multilateral agencies and donors can then make a co-ordinated response; and to mainstream trade into least developed countries poverty reduction strategies, so that pro-poor trade policies are included in a consistent manner in a country's overall development strategy. The Integrated Framework is based on the principle of country ownership and partnership. It is now being implemented in 14 least developed countries and eventually will be extended to Low Income countries. Ultimately the Integrated Framework should cease to be necessary as trade becomes successfully integrated into poverty reduction strategies.
28 Jan 2003 : Column 749W
Clare Short: The world's poorest countries face tariffs that are on average more than twice as high as those facing developed countries. Recent research estimates that developing countries could gain approximately $150 billion a year in real income from a 50 per cent. reduction in tariff barriers and other forms of protection by both developed and developing countries. Similarly, it has also been estimated that a 40 per cent. reduction in agricultural tariffs and export subsidies could boost global real incomes by around $60 billion a year.
Clare Short: The UN, with our strong support, have been pressurising Zimbabwe to import sufficient food for the non-destitute for many months. Zimbabwe has a state monopoly on cereal imports, and price controls that prevent effective private-sector participation in the food market. All donors have appealed to Zimbabwe to amend the current restrictions. The UN Special Envoy for the Southern Africa Humanitarian crisis, Mr. James Morris, has raised this issue with Mr. Mugabe six times, most recently obtaining agreement that a scheme first proposed in mid-2002 to facilitate private sector involvement, should be reconsidered for wheat imports for urban needs.
Private sector participation would help make food available for those who do have the money to purchase it. But while the private sector as a whole remains excluded, many organisations have been able to obtain import licences for specific programmes of humanitarian assistance.
28 Jan 2003 : Column 750W
Hilary Benn: The information requested, relating to average custodial sentence length for persons sentenced for burglary and robbery in England and Wales 1984 to 2001, is contained in the table. Data for earlier years are not available.
|Average custodial sentence length (months)(5)||Persons sentenced to life imprisonment(6)||Average custodial sentence length (months)(5)||Persons sentenced to life imprisonment(6)|
(4) These data are on the principal offence basis.
(5) Excludes those sentenced to a life sentence.
(6) From 1984 to 1997 the numbers sentenced to life imprisonment exclude those who were sentenced under Sec 53(2) Children and Young Persons Act 1933.
Mrs. Brooke: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department (1) what was the average number of hours of community service required by community sentences given by magistrates in England and Wales to (a) under 17-year-olds, (b) 17 to 21-year-olds and (c) over 21-year-olds in each year since 1995; 
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|Year/age group||Number sentenced to a community sentence||Number sentenced to a CPO or CPRO(8)||Average hours(9)|
|10 to 16 years||15,096||1,350||90|
|17 to 21 years||31,055||15,552||98|
|22 and over||61,389||32,553||129|
|10 to 16 years||15,857||1,561||87|
|17 to 21 years||32,382||16,076||96|
|22 and over||64,566||33,550||107|
|10 to 16 years||16,502||1,724||86|
|17 to 21 years||32,725||16,338||96|
|22 and over||68,588||35,186||106|
|10 to 16 years||18,569||1,847||86|
|17 to 21 years||35,132||17,966||95|
|22 and over||73,333||36,909||105|
|10 to 16 years||19,649||2,133||84|
|17 to 21 years||37,589||19,379||95|
|22 and over||73,739||39,908||104|
|10 to 16 years||24,338||2,214||85|
|17 to 21 years||38,633||19,581||94|
|22 and over||72,961||35,975||104|
|10 to 16 years||30,027||2,009||87|
|17 to 21 years||40,227||18,557||95|
|22 and over||75,215||34,384||104|
(7) These data are on the principal offence basis.
(8) CPO = community punishment order. CPRO = community punishment and rehabilitation order.
(9) Average hours of community punishment order and community punishment order within community punishment and rehabilitation order to be served.
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